Depending on the scope and nature of competence authorities engaged in administration in the sphere of land relationships are classified into the authorities with (1) general, (2) intersectoral, (3) sectoral competence, (4) special land resources authority1.
(1) The authorities of general competence (which is not limited by a sector or a given function) include:
- Verkhovna Rada (the parliament) of Ukraine (see art. 6 LCU);
- CoM (art. 13 LCU);
- The Council of Minister of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (art. 16 LCU);
- Local state administrations (art. 17 LCU, arts. 16, 21 LU On local state administrations);
- Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (art. 7 LCU, the Constitution of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea);
- local council and their executive authorities (arts. 8-12 LCU, LU On local self-government in Ukraine, LU On the capital of Ukraine – hero-city of Kyiv).
(2) Authorities with intersectoral competence are:
- the Ministry of Agrarian Policy of Ukraine and food “is a major authority in the system of central executive authorities responsible for determination and implementation … of the state policy in … the spheres of land relationships, topographic and geodesic works, forestry, hunting, supervision (control) in agriculture (§ 1 of the Ministry’s Charter, approved by the Presidential Decree of 23.04.2011 №500/2011); participates in agricultural lands monitoring etc. (see art. 15 LCU, art. 18 LU On lands protection, art. 8 LU On state control over land use and protection);
- the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of Ukraine (arts. 14, 14-1 LCU, art. 17 LU On lands protection, art. 20 LU On environmental protections, art. 7 LU On state control over land use and protection); in particular, the Ministry is “the major authority in the system of central executive authorities responsible for determination and implementation of state policy in spheres of environmental protection, environmental … and radiation safety, … sustainable land use and land protection, … creation, maintaining and use of environmental network, establishing, protection and use conservation fund, … development of water industry and land amelioration, geological research and sustainable subsoil use, as well as in the sphere of state supervision (control) over implementation of legislation on environmental protection, sustainable use and protection of natural resources (§ 1 of the Ministry’s Charter, approved by the Presidential Decree of 13.04.2011 №452/2011);
- the State Agency of Ukraine for Disaster Zone Management, which is entitled to grant land parcels in disaster zone and zone for mandatory (unconditional) resettlement; it also conducts lands recovery, monitoring and control over land use (subpara. «г» § 4 and others of the Agency’s Charter approved by the Presidential Decree of 06.04.2011 №393/2011);
- the Ministry of Culture of Ukraine (art. 5 LU On cultural heritage protection, §§ 65,66,70 § 4 of the Ministry’s Charter, approved by the Presidential Decree of 06.04.2011 №388/2011) performs a number of functions related to lands of historical heritage;
- the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine ensures land use of land parcels granted for the purposes of the Armed Forces of Ukraine (see, in particular, §§ 75 § 4 of the Ministry’s Charter, approved by the Presidential Decree of 06.04.2011 №406/2011);
- the Fund of State Property of Ukraine (§ 12 ch. Х, art. 17-1 and others LCU, §§ 6 § 1 art. 5 LU On the Fund of State Property of Ukraine) performs disposal of certain types of state land parcels.
(3) Authorities of sectoral competence:
- the Ministry of Regional Development, Building, Household and Municipal Industry of Ukraine performs legal regulation of land relationships by adopting building rules (art. 9 LU On settlements development regulation, art. 6 LU On building rules, §§ 2 § 1 of the Ministry’s Charter, approved by the Presidential Decree of 31.05.2011 №633/2011);
- the Ministry of Infrastructure of Ukraine performs a number of functions related to lands of transportation and communications (see, for instance, § 1 art. 12 of the Merchant Shipping Code of Ukraine, §§ 4.5,4.9 § 4 of the Ministry’s Charter approved by the Presidential Decree of 12.05.2011 №581/2011);
- the State Agency for Water Resources of Ukraine performs a number of functions in the sphere of land amelioration and water fund lands use (art. 16 LU On land amelioration, the Agency’s Charter, approved by the Presidential Decree of 13.03.2011 №453/2011);
- the State Agency for Forest Resources of Ukraine performs state supervision and control over forestry lands use (art. 28 FCU, the Agency’s Charter, approved by the Presidential Decree of 13.04.2011 №458/2011).
(4) special land resources authority (art. 15-1 LCU and other provisions of LCU are using the term “the central executive authority responsible for state policy implementation in the sphere of land relationships”) is the State Land Resources Agency of Ukraine (the Charter is approved by the Presidential Decree of 08.04.2011 №445/2011), which consist of the central body and the local land resources authorities (established by the Regulation of CoM of 17.08.2011 №974), land survey engineers of villages and settlements. At oblast level along with oblast departments in Crimea functions the Republican Committee for Land Resources of the Autonomous Republic Crimea (the Charter is approved by the decision of the Council of Ministers of Autonomous Republic Crimea of 25.10.2010 №2002).
1 Андрейцев В.І. Екологічне право: Курс лекцій: Навч. посібник для юрид. фак. вузів. – К.: Вентурі, 1996. – С.139; Земельне право: Підручник для студентів юридичних спеціальностей вищий навчальних закладів / За ред. В.І. Семчика і П.Ф. Кулинича. – К.: «Ін Юре», 2001. – С.201.
2 ЛІГА-Закон // [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу: http://search.ligazakon.ua/l_doc2.nsf/link1/ed_2010_05_25/an/8/AP100200.html#8