The term “land use planning” is applied in subch. 30 (arts. 177-180) LCU. According to the rules set there, planning is conducted in different forms: as (1) development and approval of land use programs (state, regional), (2) spatial planning, (3) classification of lands into environmental and agricultural districts.
NB. Currently in developed countries spatial planning is a major tool of land management1. It was introduced in cities at the beginning of XX century, in 1920s and 1930s it expended to all the territory of a given state (England, Italy, France, USA, Denmark)2. Terminology used to describe spatial planning differs in different countries a lot3.
(1) The legal basis for development and approval of state and regional programs are the provisions of arts. .85, 116 CoU, art. 6 LU On environmental protection, LU On state target programs, arts. 177-180 LCU.
An example of land use related programs are the Foundations of state policy of Ukraine in the sphere of environment, land resources use and environmental safety, approved by the Decision of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine of 05.03.1998, the Major components of land reform in Ukraine for the years 2001-2005, approved by the Presidential Decree of 30.05.2001 №372, the Order of the CoM of 26.09.2001 On approval of the measures for implementation of the Major components of land reform in Ukraine for the years 2001-2005.
NB. The State Committee for Land Resources of Ukraine as early as in 2004 had prepared the draft of National program of land use and protection for the years 2005-20154. The draft was approved by CoM and introduced as a draft law into the parliament5, but is not yet adopted. The Order of CoM of 17.06.2009 №743-р has approved the Concept of national target program of land relationships development in Ukraine for the period till 2020.
An example of regional land use program is the Program of land use and protection in Sumska oblast for the years of 2007-2015, approved by the decision of the oblast council of 27.07.20076.
(2) The legal basis for spatial planning are LUs On building foundations, On settlements development regulations, On General Scheme for the territory of Ukraine planning, art. 180 LCU, the number of CoM regulations, approved in order to implement LU On settlements development regulation: On building cadastre of 25.05.2011 №559, On the procedure for information exchange between the building cadastre and state land cadastre of 25.05.2011 №556, On approval of the Procedure of building documentation examination of 25.05.2011 №548, On approval of the Procedure for public hearings for considering public interests in discussing drafts of building documentation at local level of 25.05.2011 №555. For the description of types of planning documentation see ch. “Lands of Settlements”.
An integral part of spatial planning are so called schemes of district planning (“схеми планування території району”) and schemes of village council territory planning (“схеми планування території сільради”). Rules on drafting and approval of such schemes are established by ДБН Б.1.1-6-2007 and ДБН Б.1.1-7-2007. Nevertheless, considering that such an administrative unit as “a local council” is not mentioned in CoU (see the next section), it is very dubious whether the schemes approved by local councils can extend their application outside of the settlement’s territory.
Zoning is a type of spatial planning and is performed in settlements, establishing permitted types of development and other options of land use within given zones (art. 180 LCU). Currently zoning is a type of planning at a local level (arts. 16, 18 and others LU On settlements development regulation)7.
Zoning scheme of the city of Kherson8
NB. Spatial planning (including zoning) is an alternative to regulation of land use by establishing “the purpose of land use”, which is incompatible with market economy and the entitlements of the owner to dispose of his land parcel9. Rigid “purpose of land use” of each separate land parcel should be replaced with establishing homogenous zones where desired types of land use are achieved by direct prohibitions or requirements or through establishing tax or other incentives. Zoning rules can set requirements as to the size of land parcel, its shape, the length if its size along the street, the space which should left clear along the street, the height of buildings, number of stores, the sizes of buildings, the ration of area under buildings with clear area, the sizes of yards and other territories clear from buildings, the placement of different buildings and structures (residential, industrial, shops etc.)10. The rules should prevent forming land parcels which can not be used in desired manner (first of all, in relation to planning characteristics – sizes, distances between different objects, shape etc.)11.
(3) Lands classification into environmental and agricultural districts supposes “division of territory with the view to natural characteristics and agrobiological needs of crops” (§ 1 art. 179 LCU). Classification is the basis for agricultural lands related land survey documentation development.
Lands classification into environmental and agricultural districts is governed by art. 179 LCU, art. 26 LU On lands protection, art. 39 LU On land survey, the Regulation of CoM of 26.05.2004 №681 On approval of the Procedure of classification of lands into environmental and agricultural, environmental and economic, anti-erosion and other districts, the Order of The State Committee for Land Resources of 10.11.2004 №366 On approving the Advised methodology for classification of lands into environmental and agricultural districts (land zoning).
In my opinion, lands classification into environmental and agricultural districts is a type of scientific activity, which is not creating rights and duties, but only provide for a certain data which can be used, inter alia, in state land resources management. Thus, such scientific activity needs no legislative regulation. Wide scale classification in Ukraine was performed at the times when these relationships were not governed by law, and vice-versa – there was no classification performed after the rules on classification were introduced.
NB. In Soviet times lands classification into environmental and agricultural districts was performed with 5 agricultural zones and 2 mountain regions determined12. The zones and regions were divided into provinces based on the hydro-thermal characteristics. The provinces were divided into areas (primarily based to the terrain characteristics), which, in turn, were divided into approximately 200 environmental and agricultural districts13. In 2007 State Enterprise “Major scientific and research institute for land survey documentation development (“ДП «Головний науково-дослідний та проектний інститут землеустрою»”) on request of the State Committee for Land Resources developed the Map (scheme) of lands of Ukraine classification into environmental and agricultural districts.
Map (scheme) of lands of Ukraine classification into environmental and agricultural districts
1 Аксененок Г.А. Земельное законодательство зарубежных стран. - М., 1982. - С.370, 372.
2 Аксененок Г.А. Земельное законодательство зарубежных стран. - М., 1982. - С.372-373.
3 Аксененок Г.А. Земельное законодательство зарубежных стран. - М., 1982. - С.372.
4 Землеустрій і кадастр. – 2004. - №1-2. – С.101-128.
5 Даниленко А.С. Роль реформування земельних відносин у розв’язанні соціально-економічних проблем розвитку українського села і сільських територій // Землевпорядний вісник. – 2005. - №1. – С.4.
7 See: Ріпенко А.І. Правове регулювання зонування земель (територій) у сучасних умовах // Держава і право. – Вип.47. – С.480-486; Ріпенко А. До питання правового регулюваня забудови та благоустрою територій міст України // Право України. – 2010. - № 1. – С.218-222; Ріпенко А. Зонування земель (територій) в межах населених пунктів та за їх межами: правові аспекти // [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу: http://www.myland.org.ua/userfiles/file/Ripenko_zoning.pdf.
8 [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу: http://www.city.kherson.ua
9 Гусаков В., Валетта У., Нудельман В., Вашкулат О. Регулювання використання і забудови територій населених пунктів (зонінг). Довідник. – Київ, 1996. – С.11.
10 Гусаков В., Валетта У., Нудельман В., Вашкулат О. Регулювання використання і забудови територій населених пунктів (зонінг). Довідник. – Київ, 1996. – С.15, 51-52.
11 Гусаков В., Валетта У., Нудельман В., Вашкулат О. Регулювання використання і забудови територій населених пунктів (зонінг). Довідник. – Київ, 1996. – С.36.
12 Земельний кодекс України: Коментар. – Х., 2002. – С.466.
13 Канаш О.П.Основні проблеми сільськогосподарського земельно-оціночного районування // Землевпорядкування. – 2001. - №4. – С.35-38.